Sunday, November 08, 2009

Nom somos celtas, mas Galegos/as

(clicando no titulo encaminha-o para fonte)

We are not Celts at all but Galicians
(cliking on the title explains what the link offers)
By Brian Donelly

CELTIC nations such as Scotland and Ireland have more in common with the Portuguese and Spanish than with the Celts of central Europe, according to a new academic report.
Historians have long believed that the British Isles were swamped by a massive invasion of Iron Age Celts from central Europe around 500BC.
However, geneticists at Trinity College in Dublin now claim that the Scots and Irish have more in common with the people of north-western Spain.
Dr Daniel Bradley, genetics lecturer at Trinity College, said a new study into Celtic origins revealed close affinities with the people of Galicia.
He said: "It's well-known that there are cultural relations between the areas but now this shows there is much more. We think the links are much older than that of the Iron Age because it also shows affinities with the Basque region, which isn't a Celtic region."
He added: "The links point towards other Celtic nations, in particular Scotland, but they also point to Spain."
Historians believed the Celts, originally Indo-European, invaded the Atlantic islands in a massive migration 2500 years ago.
But using DNA samples from people living in Celtic nations and other parts of Europe, geneticists at the university have drawn new parallels.
Dr Bradley said it was possible migrants moved from the Iberian peninsula to Ireland as far back as 6000 years ago up until 3000 years ago.
"I don't agree with the idea of a massive Iron Age invasion that took over the Atlantic islands. You can regard the ocean, rather than a barrier, as a communication route," Dr Bradley said.
Archaeologists have also been questioning the links between the Celts of eastern France and southern Germany and the people of the British Isles and the new research appears to prove their theories.
The Dublin study found that people in areas traditionally known as Celtic, such as Ireland, Wales, Scotland, Brittany and Cornwall, had strong links with each other and had more in common with people from the Iberian peninsula.
It also found people in Ireland have more in common with Scots than any other nation.
"What we would propose is that this commonality among the Atlantic facade is much older, 6000 years ago or earlier," Dr Bradley added.
There are also close links between Scotland and Ireland dating back much further than the plantations of the 1600s when many Scots moved to Northern Ireland in search of fertile farming lands, the research showed.
However, the researchers could not determine whether fair skin, freckles, red hair and fiery tempers truly are Celtic traits.
Stephen Oppenheimer, professor of clinical socio-medical sciences at Oxford, said that the Celts of western Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Cornwall were descended from an ancient people living on the Atlantic coast when Britain was still attached to mainland Europe, while the English were more closely related to the Germanic peoples of the interior.
He said: "The English are the odd ones out because they are the ones more linked to continental Europe. The Scots, the Irish, the Welsh and the Cornish are all very similar in their genetic pattern to the Basque."

The study headed by Dr Bradley was published in the American Journal of Human Genetics.

From: The Herald, 10th September, 2004

DNA shows Scots and Irish should look to Spain for their ancestry

THE Irish and Scots may be as closely related to the people of Spain and Portugal as the Celts of central Europe.

Historians have long believed the British Isles were invaded by Iron Age Celts from central Europe in about 500 BC. But geneticists at Dublin’s Trinity College now claim the Scots and Irish have as much, if not more, in common with the people of north-western Spain.

Dr Daniel Bradley, genetics lecturer at Trinity College Dublin, said a study published in the American Journal of Human Genetics into Celtic origins revealed close affinities with the people of Galicia.

"It’s well known that there are cultural relations between the areas but now this shows there is much more," Dr Bradley said.

Historians believed that the Celts, who were originally from the Alpine regions of central Europe, invaded the Atlantic islands in a massive migration 2,500 years ago. But Dr Bradley said that it was possible migrants moved from the Iberian peninsula as far back as 6,000 years ago and up until 3,000 years ago.

The study, using DNA samples from people living in Celtic nations and other parts of Europe, found there are also close links between Scotland and Ireland dating back much further than the Plantations of the 1600s, when many Scots moved to northern Ireland in search of fertile farming land.

From: The Scotsman, 10th September 2004

The Irish are not Celts, say experts
By Jan Battles

The long-held belief that Ireland's population is descended from the Celts has been disproved by geneticists, who have concluded that they never invaded Ireland.

The research at Trinity College Dublin (TCD) into the origins of Ireland’s population found no substantial evidence of the Celts in Irish DNA, and concludes they never settled here en masse.

The study, part-funded by the National Millennium Committee, has just been published in The American Journal of Human Genetics. It was one of four projects funded by the government under the Genetic History of Ireland programme, which aimed to provide a definitive survey of the origins of the ancient peoples of Ireland.

Part of the project’s brief was to “discover whether there was a large incursion by Celtic people about 2,500 years ago” as was widely believed. After comparing a variety of genetic traits in Irish people with those of thousands of European and Near Eastern inhabitants, the scientists at TCD say there was not.

“Some people would go as far as saying there was total replacement of the population (of Ireland) 2,500 years ago,” said Brian McEvoy, one of the authors. “But if that happened we would definitely be more related to people in central Europe, because the Celts were supposed to have come from there. We’re just not seeing that. We’re seeing something earlier. Our legacy is the result of the first people to settle in Ireland around 9,000 years ago.”

About 15,000 years ago, ice covered Ireland, Britain and a lot of northern Europe so prehistoric man retreated back into Spain, Italy and Greece, which were still fairly temperate. When the ice started melting again around 12,000 years ago, people followed it northwards as areas became habitable again.

“The primary genetic legacy of Ireland seems to have come from people from Spain and Portugal after the last ice age,” said McEvoy. “They seem to have come up along the coast through western Europe and arrived in Ireland, Scotland and Wales. It’s not due to something that happened 2,500 years ago with Celts. “We have a very old genetic legacy.”

While we may not owe our heritage to the Celts, we are still linked to other populations considered Celtic, such as Scotland and Wales. McEvoy said: “It seems to be more a cultural spread than actual people coming in wiping out and replacing everyone else.”

A PhD student in Trinity’s department of genetics, McEvoy will present the findings tomorrow at the Irish Society of Human Genetics annual meeting.

He and Dan Bradley of TCD took samples of mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited from the mother, from 200 volunteers around Ireland using cheek swabs. They also compiled a database of more than 8,500 individuals from around Europe and analysed them for similarities and matches in the sequences.

They found most of the Irish samples matched with those around Britain and the Pyrenees in Spain. There were some matches in Scandinavia and parts of northern Africa.

“Of the Celtic regions, by far the strongest correspondence is with Scotland,” said Bradley. “It corresponds exactly with language.” While that could be due to the Plantation of Ulster, Bradley said it was more likely due to something much older because the matches occur throughout the whole of Ireland and not just the north.

The geneticists produced a map of Europe with contours linking places that were genetically similar. One contour goes around the edge of the Atlantic, around Wales, Scotland, Ireland and includes Galicia in Spain and the Basque region.

“This isn’t consistent with the idea of a large invasion here around 500BC,” said Bradley. “You would expect some more affinity with central Europe if we owed the bulk of our ancestry to a movement from central Europe but we don’t.”

Some archeologists also doubt there was a Celtic invasion because few of their artifacts have been found in Ireland.

From: The Sunday Times, 5 Sep 2004


Portugal and Galiza are regions with the same culture, language and ethnic people. Portugal is a creation of the galego's genius. Portugal is Galiza who extended their conquest through south from what we called Southern Gallaecia (today northern Portugal).

In the Galician borderline with Portugal, what is promoted is not only the clichés of the thought as “different” (i.e.: landscape, beaches, green, gastronomy, handcraft, cultural heritage, sportive activities, etc.), but also the
“resemblance” and the cultural identity Galician-Portuguese.

In PortuGaliza it is built an imaginary of the Galician-Portuguese recognized as a positive value, it is pointed out what joins and not what separates.

The Iberian democracies, the entrance in the European
Union, the new ways of communication and the circulation of euro have contributed to warp the Iberian borders and the limits that it conserves are studied by the anthropology, the said mental limits.
The above-mentioned factors have allowed not only the erasing of the borders as a process of re-inventing the borderline, beyond border and transnational identities. The tourism and specially the tourist images constitute a
field of special importance to observe and to analyze these identities and the processes of identifications.

Wit regards about the language, I may infer from its very wording that portuguese is, actually, cultivated Galician, or modern Galician. In conclusion, it seems to be more genuine and faithful to conceive Galegophone instead of Lusophone.

If you agree please help by joining the PortuGaliza group on Facebook. Here you will find more useful links.

Please do not hesitate to contact me should you require further informations.

Kind Regards,

Tuesday, January 22, 2008

Galiza - Celtic Country


The Milesians come from Galiza. Independent Irish and Galician traditions agree on this point.

The hypothesis of the Gaels coming from Galiza as in the Gaelic tradition can be read is here compared with the Galician tradition and same Celtic gaelic origin. Communication by sea between Galiza and Éire can be traced to prehistoric times. This confirm that the sea route Galiza-Éire was a reality in more recent historic times, after the 6th century b.C. when Galicia and Éire were already settled by gaelic Celtic tribes.

The names galego and Galiza came from the gaelic "old woman", more convenient the mother goddess Caillaech. In two altars in Sobreira, close to Porto, the name of the mother-goddess in its latinized form reads "Calaicia". (More on this topic, written in the modern Galician language can be read in chapter 1 of the book Galiza Celta)

When the Romans first come to Galiza, the historical Gallaecia, after crossing the river Douro, they found the first Celtic tribe: the worshipers of Caillaech, from where came the first Latin name for the area, "Cal-leac-ia", and the name of the people, the "Cal-laec-i". The people local particular celtic hard pronunciation rend it "Gal-leac-ia" and "gal-leg-o", from were come the actual name, Galiza or Galicia. So Galego means "the sons of the mother goddess", and Galiza "the beautiful land of the Mother-goddess" of the gaelic Celts.

The Roman general that defeated this Celtic tribe was given the surname of Decimo Junio Brutus the Galleacus (Calaicus). The Latin origin of the radical "gal-" could be traced from the early contacts between Latin and Celtic people in Central Europe. (The name of the present Polonaise town of Kalizs which gave origin to the similar name of Galicja came as well from the mother-goddess, Calleach). So the Greek "keltoi" become "gal", "gal-li" for the Romans. The names "gaels", "galego", "galos" have the very same origin.

The Celtic Gaels, speaking Gaelic, who are the people of the first invasion of Éire, came not from Spain, but from Galicia, from the other side of the bay, as we use to say.

Galiza is the only Celtic country left in the Iberian peninsula. The few tribes in Central Spain of mixed Celtiberian blood were completely annihilated by the Roman general Servius Sulpicius Galba in 151 b.C., who massacred the Celtiberians and mixed blood of Celts and Iberians after they had surrendered. For this massacre of children and women he was charged by the roman Senate with war crimes.

The tradition of both countries, Galiza and Éire, related with this sailing, the crossing of the Celtic sea from A Coruña to Cork, and over two thousand years apart, have a lot of surprising similar points.

Written tradition is no less wrong than oral tradition. Also, putting in write something doesn't make it more true. Tradition, written and oral, play an important role helping to interpretate and to build hypothesis to understand history. Coherency of history can't be neglected.

Graffiti on the rocks was the game some three or four thousand years ago. We are talking about petroglyphs.

A Galician Petroglyphs such as round motifs: circle with a cross inside (Celtic cross), circles with a dot in the center, circles with a small concentric circle inside, circles with a line showing the center or the spiral showing its center are very common on the Atlantic side of Europe and exclusively of the seashore lands. They are most important for its number and similarity in Galiza and Éire, but they are found from Brittany until Scotland. Another such typical seaboard Petrography are arms designs. They are too found in the Atlantic Europe area, in the presently known as Celtic Lands. Because they are difficult to date, for obvious reasons, we can assert a certain date, but they are old enough to put all b.C. and many centuries before. We can also find some exclusive type of bronze axes for Galiza and Éire, along with lots of archeological similarities between both countries.

The point is that there is not other explanation than the people around the Celtic sea, this triangle extending from the Galician Fisterra to the Breizh Finistère to the Kernow Lands End and to South Éire, have had contacts by sea in pre-historic times.

A sail from Galicia to Brittany could be 2 to 3 days away, from Galiza to Wales 2 to 4 days and from Galiza to Éire can take from 3 to 5 days. And shorter in the all the others cases. If pre-historic people could do such navigation, then more recent, historical people as the Celts, could do it also.

The more traditional way of navigation two thousand years ago could be coastal navigation, for it seems to be the simplest way. It is well know that Mediterranean people as well the Vikings used coastal navigation for they salings. There was another kind of navigation which still is in use today and fits better our purposes: following the predominant winds.

For the area Galicia-Éire, a 480 miles sail or less, both countries are in the same meridian, about 6 degrees west, the navigation could be the easy north-south. The predominant winds are from the west, a reach sail; good weather, anticyclone for the area, the winds are from the NW, a depression in the area the winds are from the SW. To navigate North-South (Éire-Galiza) or South-North (Galiza-Éire) will be the easy way because with the western predominant winds we could have a reach or tree quarters back. Also, not need for a compass, the stars can do it, this is south-north navigation. Galiza and Éire are across the bay.

The first historical people of Galicia were gaelic Celts, and this country was heavily settled by Celts before the VI century b.C. Communication by sea, between the different Celtic countries of the Atlantic land-ends was a reality as archeology has proven. There has been found traces of brythonic Celts in Galiza from this period ("Briteiros castrodun") and we know from History that brythonic Celts came to Galiza lately in the 5th and 6th centuries a.C. (like bishop Maeloc); they were the same people that sailed to Armorica from saxon England to create Breizh (Brittany) and they knew well the other Celtic countries with which they have many contacts. They do not sailed to North Spain (Iberian countries, such as Astures or Vascones) or Southwest of France (Aquitanians, also Iberians), but they come to Armorica (Breizh) and Galiza, both Celtic countries. So this is a evidence of the sea communication between the different Celtic countries b.C.

What it is well know from history too is that before the roman colonization at the end of the first century b.C. (3rd century in Galicia) there was a strong connection by sea, across the Celtic sea between the Celts of the many land ends: Éire, Galiza, Wales, Scotland... Descriptions and pictures of the leather boats are well known.

Galician fishermen have being fishing and sailing in the Celtic sea from centuries, on the "Gran Sol" (i.e. the Irish Box). On the sea, the best routes are determined by the predominant weather conditions. This route is well established. The Galicians have born to sail and the North-Atlantic seas were also part of their own home from centuries.

Legends and myths play an important role in every Celtic culture. The Celts didn't have any writing, simply did not write, for all the knowledge was transmited in oral form. All we know about their knowledge came through other people who interpreted it with the filter of their own knowledge, most them fiercest enemies.

We call most of the Celtic oral tradition myth or legends because they have intermixed natural and supernatural things, possible and impossible, real and imaginary, true and false... So we just don't trust people that said true and false, because we do not believe in their purpose, they try to mix-up. For the Celts this was not their intention, what to us appears as supernatural, impossible, imaginary... was part of their reality, as is today is in many Celtic countries. Water, rocks, nature is supernatural, all have specific powers, all are part of the real life. In Galiza today this is so strong that you´ll finish believing yourself. People go to specific places, most today with Christian names and Saints as central figures, to cure of specific ailments: Serans for the warts, Ribacarte to full dead, Ortigueira you´ll go live or dead, the night of the solstice (Briga) to fall pregnant, the water of the river, the Laxe... they are old Celtic recipes and they do work indeed! Any Galician will confirm it to you.

We should understand too that most of these "myths" were only written in very recent times (many centuries after and by religious people) compared with the time of occurrence. This is the case for the Book of Invasions of Éire (Leabhar Gabhala), which was done by people who had a very important knowledge of the Bible and its related myths, probably the only people that could write. So they incorporated a lot of Christian and biblical myths to Celtic ones.

But it is yet possible to extract some information from myths. These tales were written many centuries after, in a period when Christianity was so powerful and have so much influence over all aspects of life that this is what is most noticed in these relates. The Bible was the Book, the most important around to whom everything is referred and measured. The important things in history and knowledge were to be found in the Bible, its people, its lands. The Mediterranean world, Hebrews, Egyptians... had the most importance, references to this biblical world, they were important, they established the rule, the measure:

"We sailed the river Nile, we sailed across the sea, and as Cailleach's navigator, we sailed the Iberian coast to the river Munda. And with our swords and shields we settled on the coast of what you call Portugal. Our life was good. Scota's sons and daughters sailed to Ireland and Scota's grandchildren carried their arms and shields into northern Albyn where they fought the Grog-Magog and Termagol and in honor of their Queen and grandmother they called themselves Scots and their new land Scotland. I and my wife Queen Scota and my grandchildren and our Clan had arrived in the land from the dream time." -- (Chuck Larkin referring to a 19th century written and oral tradition of Scotland).

I want to notice that in North Galicia there is a river called Mondego very close from another called Mendo, and this is exactly the area were the Galician tradition places the sail of Ith, son of the Galician Celtic king Breogán, to Éire, call in the Galician tradition "the green-island"! Also Portugal is a recent name and was formed by the scission of the old Gallaecia in two kingdoms: South of Gallaecia was the Lusitania, the main part of today Portugal, where a river called Mondego is also located, on the border of the historical Galicia.

The Greeks gave the name of Esperia and the Romans Hispania from the cartaginese name of the country to the South and Mediterranean sides of the Iberian Peninsula, first till the Ebro river, and lately for the whole area with the only exclusion of the West side, i.e. Galiza and Lusitania that are naturally separated by mountain chains (the border Spain-Portugal is the most stable and oldest border of all Europe). Lately, for roman purposes only, they extended the name to the whole peninsula. Moreover, the name "Easpain" which was only applied to the mass of land on the East side of the Iberian peninsula, was applied by Irish monks to the whole peninsula. But to the south of Éire lies the only land heavily settled by Celts, that today is called Galiza to remember its first historical settlements, the gaelic Celts, from where the Gaels come.

So if we take off all reference to the Mediterranean world, all that comes from the biblical myth, there is certainly not much left but, even if corrupt in time, this something that is left, could be compared with other sources.

Without making any conclusion I would like to refer you to the book of invasions of Éire, who is the oldest in Celtic mythology to my knowledge.

I retain that Scotta marry Mil (referred also as Mile, Milesius, Golamh...). Both came from the Otherworld, the land of dead and they have sons: Ir, Bregon, Arannan... The sons and the grand-sons sailed to Éire. This is the invasion of the gaelic Celts, the Gaels. Ith the son of Bregon was born in the other land were his father had built a big tower.

The present town of A CoruñaNow, in accord with present Galicia's tradition, the Galician Breogán had built a big lighthouse in Brigantia (today know as A Coruña, and rebuild by Romans and more recent times exactly in the same place, still a landmark looking to the Celtic sea and remembering every one of this sail more that two thousands years ago, the sailing by Ith from Galiza to Éire), he and his sons have sailed in a leather boat, a trip of five days, to a green land at the north, just across the sea they use to sail. (As we have seen, five days is about the time for a sail between Galiza and Éire). Avenues talking of the "galegos", the Galicians, made a full descriptions of its leather boats, picture on rocks of the time confirm.

Now the hypothesis of considering the Otherworld of the book of invasion as Galiza and the green land of the galegos as Éire. The hypothesis of identifying Gaels = Galegos is very appealling.

In the first hand, with a little of knowledge about navigation, it's easy to realize that a sail from Galiza to Éire and back is a very easy sail in the prevailing wind conditions, a natural way to sail. For a sail of less that 500 miles in the direction south-north and reverse, is of simple navigation even at that old times, specially if you know that the prevailing winds are some times SW and others NW. This would make a perfect navigation and easy land fall in both ways for a sailing craft.

Two, identifying Galiza with the Otherworld, the land of dead, the land of Mile and Scota is not difficult in accord to Galicia's references.

Even today, the west coast of Galiza has the name "Costa da Morte" (Coast of Death). But the main reason I want to advance is the deep cult to death, still very alive in the whole Galician country and specially in the north-west coast. Celtic traditions, older than more than 2,000 years, are still alive (though now christianized): the living people play death to escape from dead. Many villages conserve this particular tradition: A Póvoa do Caramiñal, Rivacarte... where alives fools deads. The death are always present on the streets at night, being named the "ánimas" or "a estadea" in Galician (from the all Gaelic "eistedd" and "ann" meaning, i.e., "gathering of dead", and this is exactly what for Galician means). You can hear them in the dark nights of winter as they pull their chains and they mock you... the Halloween night you see them everywhere. And this is true! You can see the dead, ask any Galician. Because the Catholic religion forbidden to believe in not Christian supernatural spirits, Galicians use to say: "crér non creo, pero habelas hainas" [I just don't believe, but they do exist indeed].

Many aspects of life in Galiza reveal this deep identification with the world of the dead. The OtherWorld of the Gaels, the people that emigrated from there, was Galiza the land they know well (the OtherWorld = the OtherLand = Galiza) and too the land where the cult to the dead (Land of Dead = Land the cult to death) was so deeply enrooted, as still today, the land of the dead, as today the West coast of Galiza carry this name.

For the Galicians, Breogán is the founding father of the Galician Celtic nation and they recognized as such in the present Galician national anthem where they sing to Breogán.

The lighthouse in Brigantia (A Corunha) is still there, in the same place where Ith was born (know today as "the Hércules Tower", a name given from a bad interpretation in the last century when the Spanish idea of the supremacy of the Mediterranean world over the Atlantic world was dogma). It was is this tower, the oldest lighthouse emplacement in the Atlantic world, first build by Breogán and rebuilt many times after, always in the same place.

Next, identifying Éire's Bregon with Galiza's Breogán is not really difficult if we know from Éire's invasion book, that the son of Bregon, Ith, was born in the Otherworld and has lived there in a tower build by his father (the lighthouse of Art-o-briga, Galician Gaelic for "the bear of the goddess Brig", the town of A Coruña, still today in the same place.

It is clear that the Gaels came from Galiza, where the same people are still called "galegos". That Mil and Scotta are born there and that this two names become two Irish names. From Scotta came the name of a people that later come to Alba and... history follows. Scota is the wife of Mil. This name, Mil, means, or late is used to mean a "warrior". There is even today in Galiza lots of names of villages who use the old gaelic word "mil = warrior", such as Ardemil (Gaelic for high-warrior), Belmil (warrior of Bel), Antemil, and so on.

So, if some invasions of Éire came from the South, they came from Galiza. Galiza and Éire share many traditions, the same Gaelic Celtic heritage (see, in Galician, Galiza Celta chapter 5) and "they are just across the bay". You want a better proof, take an old Gaelic dictionary (the old Gaelic roots better) and you will be happy surprised to translate most of the old Galician place-names. In the Galician toponimy are written the oldest aspects of the Celtic culture in Europe. Galiza, this great forgotten Celtic land.

Thursday, August 30, 2007

Virtus et Vitium

L'Ethique de la Vertu

Les anciens accordaient une importance fondamentale à l’éducation morale en vue du développement de la vertu. De Platon à Aristote, d’Epictète à Sénèque, le mot revient sans cesse dans les textes. Mais pour nous c’est un terme qui ne va plus de soi, un terme que nous trouvons niais, vieillot et démodé. Nous sommes dans la postérité de Sade avec Les infortunes de la vertu. Petite vertu de la virginité, vouée à la perte dans la consommation de la sexualité. Un étudiant a beaucoup de mal a comprendre le sens ancien du mot vertu et il lui est très difficile de faire une explication de texte sur ce thème. Signe tout à fait caractéristique, ce que l’on désignait autrefois sous l’appellations des « vertus », tel que l’honnêteté, le courage, la fidélité, la pudeur etc. est aujourd’hui interprété sous un nom différent : nous parlons nous de « valeurs ». Or être attaché à des valeurs n’a pas le même sens que de cultiver des vertus. Cela nous engage moins.

Remettre à la mode une notion aussi ancienne que la vertu dans un contexte postmoderne passe pour une étrange gageure. Cependant, le défi mérité d’être relevé. Nous reconnaissons aujourd’hui que l’éducation morale est indispensable. Il se pourrait bien que seule la vertu puisse sauver le monde du chaos. Nous aimerions donner aux générations à venir les rudiments d’une morale civique. Mais comment nous y prendre ? Faut-il revenir aux leçons des anciens ? Devons-nous redonner un sens à la vertu ? L’éthique peut-elle en donner une définition claire ? Qu’est-ce que la vertu ? Une habitude acquise de conformité aux bonnes mœurs ? Un effort persévérant vers le bien ? Un qualificatif purement relatif de ce que nous opposons à ce que nous prenons pour des vices ? Un idéal moral ?

* *

Dualité de la vertu et du vice et postmodernité

Dans le domaine du relatif, une chose ne peut être pensée sans son contraire ; la vertu est indissociable de son contraire le vice. Vertu/vice ne peuvent pas plus être séparés, que plaisir/douleur, (texte) bien/mal, ou bonheur/malheur etc. Dans l’attitude naturelle, une vertu est une qualité qui fait l’objet d’une louange et d’une approbation morale, et le vice est un défaut qui fait l’objet d’un blâme et d‘une réprobation morale. Il est par exemple assez curieux de remarquer que dans la représentation commune l’idée est de connaissance de soi est d’abord entendue ainsi : « c’est important de connaître ses défauts et de ne pas sous-estimer ses qualités » ! De même on entendra dans le même sens la connaissance d’autrui (voir les « bons côtés » de quelqu’un, ne pas trop s’attarder sur ses « défauts »). La signification du terme de vertu est obscure. La signification du terme de vertu est obscure. Nous ne parlons plus de vertu. Pourquoi ?(texte)

L’homme postmoderne n’emploie pas le mot « vertu » et il réserve le mot « vice » uniquement pour désigner un comportement sexuel obsessionnel. Cependant, il juge et condamne éperdument, il sait procéder à une évaluation morale dans laquelle il est « bien » de posséder certaines qualités et il « mal » d’avoir les défauts contraires. Il reconnaîtra en aparté que la qualité de retenue devant la nourriture et pensera que la gourmandise est un « vilain défaut ».

Si nous devions mettre sur papier la dualité vertu/vice sous la forme de tableau, nous pourrions par exemple figurer :


































Veronese, Virtus et Vitium

Pour un texte intégral visitez la page suivante: Forum Philosophica

Wednesday, February 07, 2007

Língua e Cultura Portuguesa: Petição Internacional

Official Petition Promoted By The C.U. Portuguese Speakers Society Against the Closure of Portuguese course at Cambridge University

A Universidade de Cambridge prepara-se para fechar o Departamento de Língua e Cultura Portuguesa, o qual tem contado com apoio financeiro do Estado Português.



Aproveito para deixar uma estrofe do Luis Vaz de Camões, mais que oportuno, relembrando o valor incomensuràvel da Língua Portuguesa.

Cessem do sàbio Grego e do Troiano
As navegações grandes que fizeram;
Cale-se de Alexandro e de Trajano
A fama das vitórias que tiveram;
Que eu canto o peito ilustre Lusitano,
A quem Neptuno e Marte obedeceram:
Cesse tudo o que a Musa antígua canta,
Que outro valor mais alto se alevanta.

Trata-se, naturalmente, de uma invocação às Ninfas do Tejo. Terceira estrofe do Canto I d' "Os Lusíadas" da autoria de Luís Vaz de Camões. Para uma leitura integral da obra clique no seguinte link "Os Lusíadas". Advirto que a obra està em formato PDF, da Biblioteca Nacional Digital.

Para uma informação mais completa da Língua e Cultura Portuguesa, não deixe de visitar a Biblioteca Nacional Digital.

Em jeito de despedida,

E aqueles, que por obras valerosas
Se vão da lei da morte libertando;
Cantando espalharei por toda parte,
Se a tanto me ajudar engenho e arte.

Um grande Bem Haja! Grato pela visita.

Thursday, January 25, 2007

Amor Vincit Omnia

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (c. 1572 - 1610)

O amor é uma flor delicada, mas é preciso ter coragem de ir colhê-la à beira de um precipício. (Stendhal)

Monday, December 25, 2006

"Viens à moi, je t'aime"

Voici ce coeur qui a tant aimé le monde. Son regard nous saisit. "Je suis tendresse et pitié".
Peinture de Malel

Chapelle Sainte-Thérèse de la Fondation d'Auteuil - Les Orphelins Apprentis d'Auteuil

Requiem Mozart KV 626



Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine,
et lux perpetua luceat eis.

Te decet hymnus, Deus, in Sion,
et tibi reddetur votum in Jerusalem.

Exaudi orationem meam,
ad te omnis caro veniet.
Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine,
et lux perpetua luceat eis.

Kyrie eleison.
Christe eleison.
Kyrie eleison.


Dies Irae:
Dies irae, dies illa
Solvet saeclum in favilla,
Teste David cum Sibylla.
Quantus tremor est futurus
Quando judex est venturus
Cuncta stricte discussurus.

Tuba Mirum:
Tuba mirum spargens sonum
Per sepulcra regionum
Coget omnes ante thronum.

Mors stupebit et natura
Cum resurget creatura
Judicanti responsura.
Liber scriptus proferetur
In quo totum continetur,
Unde mundus judicetur.

Judex ergo cum sedebit
Quidquid latet apparebit,
Nil inultum remanebit.

Quid sum miser tunc dicturus,
Quem patronum rogaturus,
Cum vix justus sit securus?

(Tous les solistes)
Cum vix justus sit securus?

Rex Tremendae:
Rex tremendae majestatis,
Qui salvandos salvas gratis,
Salva me, fons pietatis.

Recordare, Jesu pie,
Quod sum causa tuae viae,
Ne me perdas illa die.
Quaerens me sedisti lassus,
Redemisti crucem passus,
Tamus labor non sit cassus.
Juste judex ultionis
Donum fac remissionis
Ante diem rationis.
Ingemisco tanquam reus,
Culpa rubet vultus meus,
Supplicanti parce, Deus.
Qui Mariam absolvisti
Et latronem exaudisti,
Mihi quoque spem dedisti.
Preces meae non sunt dignae,
Sed tu bonus fac benigne,
Ne perenni cremer igne.
Inter oves locum praesta,
Et ab haedis me sequestra,
Statuens in parte dextra.

Confutatis maledictis
Flammis acribus addictis,
Voca me cum benedictis.
Oro supplex et acclinis,
Cor contritum quasi cinis,
Gere curam mei finis.

Lacrimosa dies illa
Qua resurget ex favilla
Judicandus homo reus.
Huic ergo parce, Deus,
Pie Jesu Domine,
Dona eis requiem.


Domine Jesu:
Domine, Jesu Christe, Rex gloriae,
libera animas omniurn fidelium defunctorum
de poenis inferni, et de profundo lacu:
libera eas de ore leonis,
ne absorbeat eas tartarus,
ne cadant in obscurum,

Sed signifer sanctus Michael
repraesentet eas in lucem sanctam,

Quam olim Abrahae promisisti et semini eius.

Hostias :
Hostias et preces, tibi, Domine, laudis offerimus:
tu suscipe pro animabus illis,
quarum hodie memoriam facimus:
fac eas, Domine, de morte transire ad vitam,
quam olim Abrahae promisisti et semini eius.


Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus,
Dominus Deus Sabaoth!
Pleni sunt coeli et terra gloria tua.
Osanna in excelsis.


Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.

Osanna in excelsis.

Agnus Dei

Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi,
dona eis requiem.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi,
dona eis requiem sempiternam.


Lux Aeterna:
(Soprano, puis le chœur)
Lux aeterna luceat eis, Domine,
cum sanctis tuis in aeternum,
quia pius es.

Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine,
et lux perpetua luceat eis,
cum sanctis tuis in aeternum,
quia pius es.